A number of different initiatives were subsequently introduced to refocus attention on patient safety: mandating minimum nurse-to-patient ratios, reducing working hours, care bundles that improve patient outcomes, safety checklists, advances to the science of simulation and teamwork training.
Team-based approaches are particularly significant, as inconsistencies in treatment have often been attributed to high turnovers in staff. Trials are currently underway to measure the success of:
• Simulation - ranging from simple bench-top models to task simulators, virtual reality simulators and simulated operating or labour suites for training and assessment of entire clinical teams.
• Standardisation – creating a consistent means of assessing core skills and performance.
• Team training – involving three core activities - leading (over years), managing (over months), and coaching (daily)
• CPT - establishing routines on a long-term basis, objective standards and checklists.
Healthcare as a team objective
Both industries share common issues. Both operate in an environment characterized by stress, heavy workloads, often high-risk situations and high stakes decision-making and very consequential errors.
This team-based training recognises that humans have limited capabilities and that when human limitation meets environmental complexity and constant stress, errors become inevitable.
As teams, rather than individuals, deliver healthcare, success is dependent on the quality and effectiveness of communication as well as monitoring and co-ordination within the team. If the clinical environment, team effectiveness or individual clinicians compromise these, concentration will be diverted and safety and efficiency will be affected detrimentally.
What makes an effective team?
One of the key factors of effective teams is that they have shared and accurate “mental models” of the task at hand, the available equipment and the skills and responsibilities of team-mates.
With these obvious and objectively measureable success factors, it is relatively easy to reflect whether the team achieved its goals.
Other factors, which are often overlooked, include the happiness of the team, their commitment to team goals and their ability to pull together as a team to improve performance together.
Team training – when and how?
Team training and safety interventions have to be considered as ongoing, continuous disciplines that are embedded within healthcare organisations. Building effective, expert teams, that have a clear understanding of their tasks, their roles and their expected team behaviours is predicted improve patient outcomes even more than those promised by biomedical advances.
Neily and colleagues carried out a clinical study on the impact of team training, across 108 hospitals in the USA. It documented an overall 18% reduction in post-operative mortality in the intervention hospitals.
But the only way to achieve these levels of success is through systematic team training.
There needs to be a shift from training on real patients to simulation-based training where actual team members train together in a simulated operating theatre environment. Here they can rehearse and perfect effective responses to catastrophic and/or rare crises and introduce novel interventions such as the WHO checklist.
Improving and standardising assessment
Another area that is important to address in patient safety improvement is the current lack of standardised assessment in healthcare. The challenge is to create a systematic benchmark against which to assess or compare performance.
The BJA recommends that regulations are in place to ensure that assessments are fair, reliable, valid, and feedback is provided in an effective and sensitive manner and that faculty and trainers be required to undertake extensive training, demonstrate a minimum level of proficiency, and hold an accreditation to apply these measures in practice.
Finally, when it comes to healthcare provider selection, evidence-based selection, using appropriately validated tasks and the concept of assessment/selection centres, should be introduced across specialities, including acute care, surgery and anaesthesia.